Diseases of birds

Diseases Birds Can Carry & How To Protect Your Health

Diseases that birds can spread are a growing health concern for many communities. As the population of wild and domesticated birds continues to increase, so does the risk of contact with diseases they may carry. Understanding the importance of protecting your family from these ailments and helping reduce exposure in your home or business environment is essential. In this blog, we will discuss some common diseases of birds and how to protect yourself from them.


Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal infection caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It is spread by contact with bird droppings, such as those of pigeons, and can present as pneumonia in the lungs or meningitis in the brain. People with weakened immune systems are more likely to be affected by cryptococcosis. Symptoms include fever, malaise, and headache, slowly progressing over weeks to months. Treatment typically includes antifungal medications and supportive care. It is important to take preventive measures such as wearing protective clothing when cleaning up bird droppings and washing hands after contact with birds or their droppings.


Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by breathing in spores of a fungus often found in bird droppings. It is caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, located in soil, particularly around places where large birds gather. The infection usually affects the lungs, and symptoms can vary greatly, ranging from mild to severe. Most people with histoplasmosis have no symptoms but can cause fever, chest pain, cough, and difficulty breathing if left untreated. It can sometimes spread to other organs, such as the brain or eyes.


Psittacosis, parrot fever or ornithosis, is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci. It is primarily spread to humans from infected birds in the parrot family, known as psittacines, but can sometimes be found in chickens and ducks. Symptoms of psittacosis include fever and chills, headache, muscle aches, and dry cough. More severe symptoms, such as pneumonia, can occur in some cases. It is vital to take precautions when handling birds infected with psittacosis and seek medical attention if any of the above symptoms develop.

Avian Tuberculosis

Avian Tuberculosis, also known as avian mycobacteriosis, is a contagious disease caused by the Mycobacterium avium bacteria. It is endemic worldwide and widespread in waterfowl because they prefer damp conditions. Chickens, pigeons, seagulls, pheasants, quail, guinea fowl, turkeys, parrots, budgerigars, ducks, geese, doves and other birds can all spread Avian Tuberculosis. The disease causes tubercles (granulomatous lesions) in the viscera, leading to progressive weight loss and death if left untreated. Avian tuberculosis is also a zoonotic disease which means it can be transferred to humans but can be treated by taking antimicrobial medication.


E. coli, or Escherichia coli, is a large and diverse group of bacteria that can cause human illness. While most strains of E. coli are harmless, some can make people sick. One way that E. coli can be spread is through birds, which can carry the bacteria on their feathers and feet and then transfer it to other animals or humans when they come into contact with them. This transmission type is widespread in areas with large concentrations of birds, such as farms or parks.


Salmonella is a type of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans. It is commonly spread through the consumption of undercooked or raw meat, poultry, eggs, and egg products. Birds can also spread salmonella, as they are known to carry the bacteria on their feathers and feet. When birds come into contact with food or surfaces that humans use for eating and preparing food, they can transfer salmonella to these items and cause an infection in those who consume them. It is important to keep bird feeders away from areas where people eat and prepare food to prevent salmonella infections from birds. Additionally, it is important to thoroughly cook all meats and poultry before consuming them.


Trichomonosis is an infectious disease caused by the microscopic parasite Trichomonas gallinae. It is commonly found in garden bird species and can be spread through contact with infected birds or their droppings. The protozoan parasite causes lesions in the throat of infected birds, making it difficult for them to swallow food. In addition, trichomonosis can cause caseous necrosis of the oral cavity and potentially orbital, brain, and liver lesions in poultry. It is important to keep bird feeders clean and avoid contact with wild birds or their droppings to prevent its spread.

Protecting Your Health

It is essential to be aware of the potential health risks of diseases carried by pigeons and other birds can carry, and to take appropriate steps to protect your health. While the diseases discussed above are some of the most common ones associated with birds, many more could potentially affect humans. To stay safe, it is essential to practice good hygiene when handling birds or their droppings, avoid contact with wild birds whenever possible, thoroughly cook all meats and poultry before consuming them, and keep bird feeders away from areas where people eat and prepare food. By taking these precautions, you can ensure that you and your family remain healthy.

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